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italia popolazione 1914

The new Kingdom of Italy obtained Great Power status. [69] More than two centuries of stability followed, during which Italy was referred to as the rectrix mundi (queen of the world) and omnium terrarum parens (motherland of all lands).[70]. The Germanic Emperor and the Roman Pontiff became the universal powers of medieval Europe. Major Italian cargo operators are Alitalia Cargo and Cargolux Italia. This was in turn struck down by a referendum following the Fukushima nuclear accident. [27] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,[28] while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. The five largest lakes are, in order of diminishing size:[155] Garda (367.94 km2 or 142 sq mi), Maggiore (212.51 km2 or 82 sq mi, whose minor northern part is Switzerland), Como (145.9 km2 or 56 sq mi), Trasimeno (124.29 km2 or 48 sq mi) and Bolsena (113.55 km2 or 44 sq mi). Fears of a possible Communist takeover (especially in the United States) proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on 18 April 1948, when the Christian Democrats, under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi, obtained a landslide victory. [184], Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water levels, Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years. in The Maritime Executive, 1 January 2020. Stop a bar e ristoranti alle 18 ma aperti la domenica", "Sondaggio Demos: gradimento per Conte alle stelle", "Blog | Coronavirus, la sospensione delle libertà costituzionali è realtà. Chazizam, M. (2018). The most original work of all late Baroque and Rococo architecture is the Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi, dating back to the 18th century. Under the Peace Treaties of Saint-Germain, Rapallo and Rome, Italy gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council and obtained most of the promised territories, but not Dalmatia (except Zara), allowing nationalists to define the victory as "mutilated". A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance on traditional products; Italy has the most traditional specialities protected under EU law. In the 20th century, with Futurism, primarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla, Italy rose again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and sculpture. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle, the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank, and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter, in the last years deployed in EU, NATO and UN missions. During the interwar period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions. 1914-18 LA “GRANDE GUERRA” 2. In 2012, the Italian secondary education was evaluated as slightly below the OECD average, with a strong and steady improvement in science and mathematics results since 2003;[367] however, a wide gap exists between northern schools, which performed significantly better than the national average (among the best in the world in some subjects), and schools in the South, that had much poorer results. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more. [278][279][280], In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the second largest producer in the European Union and the ninth in the world. Between 1898 and 1914, the peak years of Italian diaspora, approximately 750,000 Italians emigrated each year. Popes such as Julius II (1503–1513) fought for the control of Italy against foreign monarchs, others such as Paul III (1534–1549) preferred to mediate between the European powers in order to secure peace in Italy. There are more than 800,000 followers of faiths originating in the Indian subcontinent with some 70,000 Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the country. The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the Lumière brothers began motion picture exhibitions. Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow like Bruno Caruso and Renato Guttuso. The Italian polities were now regional states effectively ruled by Princes, de facto monarchs in control of trade and administration, and their courts became major centres of Arts and Sciences. [345], In 2017, the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic Christians was 74.4%. G. Benvenuti – Le Repubbliche Marinare. The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta, fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. [62], The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians, who initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Agricoltura e popolazione in Campania in età liberale (1880-1914) (Storia) (Italian Edition) [Panico, Guido] on While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples (the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world),[434] and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene. The princedoms were led by political dynasties and merchant families such as the Medici in Florence, the Visconti and Sforza in the Duchy of Milan, the Doria in the Republic of Genoa, the Mocenigo and Barbarigo in the Republic of Venice, the Este in Ferrara, and the Gonzaga in Mantua. [105] Victor Emmanuel II then became the first king of a united Italy, and the capital was moved from Turin to Florence. [395], The history of Italian visual arts is significant to the history of Western painting. Italian writers embraced Romanticism in the early 19th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. The Po, Italy's longest river (652 kilometres or 405 miles), flows from the Alps on the western border with France and crosses the Padan plain on its way to the Adriatic Sea. Court musicians and dancers collaborated to provide elaborate entertainment for them. [180] Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia, is considered one of the most prestigious fashion magazines in the world. Italian unification was completed and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome. [164] Taking into consideration their origin, the Italian rivers can be divided into two main groups: the Alpine-Po rivers and the Apennine-island rivers. It also has at its disposal many Leopard 1 and M113 armoured vehicles. Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. In the same period, Emilio Salgari, writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction, published his Sandokan series. Library has: v.1. [383], Italy has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites (55) than any other country in the world, and has rich collections of art, culture and literature from many periods. High fertility and birth rates persisted until the 1970s, after which they started to decline. The national power company Enel operates several nuclear reactors in Spain, Slovakia and France,[284][285] managing it to access nuclear power and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants without placing reactors on Italian territory.[285]. The Prime Minister, officially President of the Council of Ministers (Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), is Italy's head of government. [358], One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is Judaism, Jews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ. Italy's official language is Italian, as stated by the framework law no. [303][304] However, in recent years Italy has experienced significant growth in birth rates. Italian fashion has a long tradition, and is regarded as one most important in the world. Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries,[30][31][32] with the world's eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP (third in the European Union), sixth-largest national wealth and third-largest central bank gold reserve. [78] In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient. Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the 1400s and 1500s. Recent analytic philosophers include Carlo Penco, Gloria Origgi, Pieranna Garavaso and Luciano Floridi. The Republican Constitution was approved on 1 January 1948. The city of Milan hosts Fiera Milano, Europe's largest design fair. [222] A founding member of the G7, the Eurozone and the OECD, it is regarded as one of the world's most industrialised nations and a leading country in world trade and exports. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12, – in Europe (light green & dark grey)– in the European Union (light green)  –  [Legend]. In the wake of Julius Caesar's rise and death in the first century BC, Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia, and engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other cultures merged into a unique civilisation. [293][294][295] In biology, Francesco Redi has been the first to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies and he described 180 parasites in details and Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic anatomy, Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted important research in bodily functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory, Camillo Golgi, whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex, paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine, Rita Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor (awarded 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine). The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi, renowned for his extremely loyal followers,[101] who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1861, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. [373] However, healthcare is provided to all citizens and residents by a mixed public-private system. Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country. Starting from the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing under its rule Eritrea and Somalia in East Africa, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in North Africa (later unified in the colony of Libya) and the Dodecanese islands. [174] The high geothermal gradient that forms part of the peninsula makes potentially exploitable also other provinces: research carried out in the 1960s and 1970s identifies potential geothermal fields in Lazio and Tuscany, as well as in most volcanic islands. Italy's most famous composers include the Renaissance composers Palestrina, Monteverdi and Gesualdo, the Baroque composers Scarlatti, Corelli and Vivaldi, the Classical composers Paisiello, Paganini and Rossini, and the Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini. Some of these soon became small urban centres and were developed parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centres there were the cities of Motya, Zyz (modern Palermo), Soluntum in Sicily and Nora, Sulci, and Tharros in Sardinia. [412], Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinas, the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism, who reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity. From folk music to classical, music has always played an important role in Italian culture. He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before. [207] The Corpo Forestale dello Stato (State Forestry Corps) formerly existed as a separate national park ranger agency,[206][207] but was merged into the Carabinieri in 2016. Italy's three major political parties are the Five Star Movement, the Democratic Party and the Lega. [141] From March to May, Conte's government imposed a national lockdown as a measure to limit the spread of the disease,[142][143] while further restrictions were introduced during the following winter. In modern times the Italian Navy, being a member of the EU and NATO, has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations around the world. In 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city, favouring a government of the Senate and the People (SPQR) and establishing an oligarchic republic. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustus, began a golden age of peace and prosperity. The works by Alessandro Manzoni, the leading Italian Romantic, are a symbol of the Italian unification for their patriotic message and because of his efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language; his novel The Betrothed was the first Italian historical novel to glorify Christian values of justice and Providence, and it has been called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian language. 8 7 la motivazione di cio' e' dovuta al fatto che la qualita' della vita e' migliorata e si sono scoperte piu' cure per le malattie. The early Christians' art and architecture was also widely inspired by that of the pagan Romans; statues, mosaics and paintings decorated all their churches. The Italian Grand Prix of Formula 1 is the fifth oldest surviving Grand Prix, having been held since 1921. From Giotto onwards, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative. La neutralità italiana durante la prima guerra mondiale consistette nella politica condotta dal governo italiano, guidato da Antonio Salandra, nel periodo fra l'ultimatum austriaco del 23 luglio 1914 alla Serbia e la dichiarazione di guerra italiana all'Impero austro-ungarico, il 23 maggio 1915 [432] Domenico da Piacenza was one of the first dancing masters. Italy remained the metropole of the empire, and as the homeland of the Romans and the territory of the capital, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina (ruler) of the provinces". [394], During the Fascist period, the so-called "Novecento movement" flourished, based on the rediscovery of imperial Rome, with figures such as Gio Ponti and Giovanni Muzio. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity. "The Military Balance 2010", pp. Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. [131] The Communists reorganised as a social-democratic force. Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world. Italia, aliată nominal cu Imperiul German și cu Austro-Ungaria în Tripla Alianță, a refuzat să intre în Primul Război Mondial în 1914 de partea acestora, deoarece considera că alianța este una defensivă. Other examples of large PV plants in Italy are San Bellino (70.6 MW), Cellino san Marco (42.7 MW) and Sant’ Alberto (34.6 MW). Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders. Italy is well known for its cultural and environmental tourist routes and is home to 55 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the most in the world. SAL3 (off-campus storage) Stacks Request. In the north, the Germans set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI), a Nazi puppet state with Mussolini installed as leader after he was rescued by German paratroopers. However, the reorganization of the army and the conscription of the so-called '99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99, all males born in 1899 who were turning 18) led to more effective Italian victories in major battles, such as on Monte Grappa and in a series of battles on the Piave river. Students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts. [461] Major Italian fashion labels, such as Gucci, Armani, Prada, Versace, Valentino, Dolce & Gabbana, Missoni, Fendi, Moschino, Max Mara, Trussardi, and Ferragamo, to name a few, are regarded as among the finest fashion houses in the world. Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic (spoken by over 475,000 people; 13.1% of foreign residents), Albanian (380,000 people) and Spanish (255,000 people). From 2013 to 2018, the country took in over 700,000 migrants and refugees,[134] mainly from sub-Saharan Africa,[135] which caused great strain on the public purse and a surge in the support for far-right or eurosceptic political parties. [362][clarification needed], The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a regime known as Eight per thousand. [165], The longest Italian river is Po, which flows either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi) (considering the length of the right bank tributary Maira) and whose headwaters are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso.

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